The growing sensorization of the environment, especially in urban contexts, is well defined trend, supported by different technological pillars including the miniaturization of sensors, the reduction of power consumption of electronics and of wide-area wireless communication protocols and the development of analytical tools to automatically process and extract meaning from huge amount of acquired data. The same approach can clearly benefit rural areas (posing slightly different challenges), to target monitoring of pollution and higher safety and efficiency in agriculture and food processing. In this lecture the challenges of combining the miniaturization of electronics with high sensitivity for two classes of sensors: impedance-based sensors, in particular electrochemical ones, and X-ray based detectors will be discussed. The main application case will be monitoring of water (for drinking and irrigation purposes). Finally, examples of drone-based environmental monitoring will be presented as well.
Marco Carminati, was born in 1981 in Milan (Italy). He received B. Sc. and M. Sc. in Electronic Engineering, both magna cum laude from Politecnico di Milano, in 2003 and 2005 respectively. In 2006 he joined DEI (Politecnico di Milano) developing a compact aircraft attitude estimation unit based on MEMS inertial sensors and Kalman filtering. In January 2007 he won (first position in the ranking) a national grant for his doctoral studies, which he completed in 2009, focusing on low-noise analog design and (bio)-electronic instrumentation. In 2007 he was awarded a Progetto Roberto Rocca Fellowship and spent the 2008 spring semester at MIT (USA) as a visiting student in prof. Joel Voldman’s group, working on BioMEMS and microfluidics. From 2010 to 2015 he was post-doc researcher in the group of prof. Marco Sampietro contributing to the invention of original micro-sensors based on high-resolution impedance detection for silicon photonics and environmental monitoring. Since 2014 he is teacher of the “Biochip” course and serves as secretary of the IEEE I&M TC-34. Since 2016 he is Assistant Professor (with tenure track) in the group led by prof. Carlo Fiorini, focusing on low-noise nuclear electronics, with applications spanning from medical imaging to neutrino physics. He has authored 180+ peer-reviewed international publications (1680+ citations, h-index = 21), holds 4 patents and was awarded 3 best paper awards at IEEE conferences (including ISCAS’19). He is IEEE Senior member and serves as Associate Editor of IEEE TBioCAS. He is also TPC member of different conferences including IEEE FoodCAS, BioCAS and ICECS. He has lectured several courses, tutorials (including BioCAS’19) and invited talks.